Animation Bible

General Techniques:

All animations are hand-drawn using Procreate using drawing techniques specified in the Art Bible to create individual frames which can then be funnelled into any applicable animation software. The below prototypes were created using Animation Creation, which turn individual frames into a MP4 file.

Frame Rate:

12 frames-per-second – gives the animation a slightly shaky, Disney-esque quality, inspired by Coda (2015) and Kagemono: The Shadow Folk (2012).


Construction images are created using any of Procreate’s pencil brushes.

Key frames: Two frames indicating the start and the end of the movement.

Extremes: Several frames between the key frames indicating the extreme parts of the movements.

In-betweens: Frames between the extremes that will contribute to the speed/pacing of the movement.



Animations are created using the pose-to-pose technique, which uses key frames and extremes to outline the key points of the movement in order to get a good idea of the shape and scale of the movement before filling in the in-betweens. Once the shape is up to standard, in-betweens are used to add the appropriate pacing and emphasis on certain poses.

Squash and stretch:

Squash and elongate certain frames to add the effect of cartoonish malleability to an object regardless of if the object is actually soft or not. The object must maintain the same volume even if squashed/stretched, e.g. if something is squashed vertically, it must expand horizontally.

Anticipation, follow through, slow in/slow out:

Use anticipatory frames (e.g. a crouch before a jump) to give pacing and exaggeration to a movement. Follow through with appendages (e.g. Hope’s hat falling slower than her body, bouncing and then coming to rest after she has stopped moving) gives the animation realism, fluidity and imitates resisting forces acting on objects with more/less air resistance. Slow in/slow out (e.g. denser frames at the beginning and end of the jump) indicates speed due to less frames being dedicated to faster sections of a movement.

Massive over-exaggeration of movement:

Gestures, movements and expressions should be over-exaggerated so they are highlighted in the animation. Punchy, dynamic movements are preferred over realism.